In this work, we show that compelling classification performance can be achieved on fine-grained image sets even without labeled training data. Given image and class embeddings, we learn a compatibility function such that matching embeddings are assigned a higher score than mismatching ones; zero-shot classification of an image proceeds by finding the label yielding the highest joint compatibility score. We use state-of-the-art image features and focus on different supervised attributes and unsupervised output embeddings either derived from hierarchies or learned from unlabeled text corpora.
Despite good performance, attributes have limitations including (1) finer-grained recognition requires commensurately more attributes; and (2) attributes do not provide a natural language interface. We propose to overcome these limitations by training neural language models from scratch; i.e. without pre-training and only consuming words and characters. Our proposed models train end-to-end to align with the fine-grained and category-specific content of images. Natural language provides a flexible and compact way of encoding only the salient visual aspects for distinguishing categories. By training on raw text our model can do inference on raw text as well, providing humans a familiar mode both for annotation and retrieval.
We present a novel latent embedding model for learning a compatibility function between image and class embeddings, in the context of zero-shot classification. The proposed method augments the state-of-the-art bilinear compatibility model by incorporating latent variables. Instead of learning a single bilinear map, it learns a collection of latent variable maps with the selection of which map to use being a latent variable for the current image-class pair.
The most successful zero-shot learning approaches currently require a particular type of auxiliary information – namely attribute annotations performed by humans – that is not readily available for most classes. Our goal is to circumvent this bottleneck by substituting such annotations by extracting multiple pieces of information from multiple unstructured text sources readily available on the web. To compensate for the weaker form of auxiliary information, we incorporate stronger supervision in the form of semantic part annotations on the classes from which we transfer knowledge.
Due to the importance of zero-shot learning, the number of proposed approaches has increased steadily recently. We argue that it is time to take a step back and to analyze the status quo of the area. The purpose of this paper is three-fold. First, given the fact that there is no agreed upon zero-shot learning benchmark, we first define a new benchmark by unifying both the evaluation protocols and data splits. This is an important contribution as published results are often not comparable and sometimes even flawed due to, e.g. pre-training on zero-shot test classes. Second, we compare and analyze a significant number of the state-of-the-art methods in depth, both in the classic zero-shot setting but also in the more realistic generalized zero-shot setting. Finally, we discuss limitations of the current status of the area which can be taken as a basis for advancing it.
Zero-shot image classification using auxiliary information, such as attributes describing discriminative object properties, requires time-consuming annotation by domain experts. We instead propose a method that relies on human gaze as auxiliary information, exploiting that even nonexpert users have a natural ability to judge class membership. We present a data collection paradigm that involves a discrimination task to increase the information content obtained from gaze data. Our method extracts discriminative descriptors from the data and learns a compatibility function between image and gaze using three novel gaze embeddings: Gaze Histograms (GH), Gaze Features with Grid (GFG) and Gaze Features with Sequence (GFS). We introduce two new gaze-annotated datasets for fine-grained image classification and show that human gaze data is indeed class discriminative, provides a competitive alternative to expert annotated attributes, and outperforms other baselines for zero-shot image classification.