@online{Bringmann_arXiv2010.09096,
TITLE = {On Near-Linear-Time Algorithms for Dense Subset Sum},
AUTHOR = {Bringmann, Karl and Wellnitz, Philip},
LANGUAGE = {eng},
URL = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.09096},
EPRINT = {2010.09096},
EPRINTTYPE = {arXiv},
YEAR = {2020},
MARGINALMARK = {$\bullet$},
ABSTRACT = {In the Subset Sum problem we are given a set of $n$ positive integers $X$ and a target $t$ and are asked whether some subset of $X$ sums to $t$. Natural parameters for this problem that have been studied in the literature are $n$ and $t$ as well as the maximum input number $\rm{mx}_X$ and the sum of all input numbers $\Sigma_X$. In this paper we study the dense case of Subset Sum, where all these parameters are polynomial in $n$. In this regime, standard pseudo-polynomial algorithms solve Subset Sum in polynomial time $n^{O(1)}$. Our main question is: When can dense Subset Sum be solved in near-linear time $\tilde{O}(n)$? We provide an essentially complete dichotomy by designing improved algorithms and proving conditional lower bounds, thereby determining essentially all settings of the parameters $n,t,\rm{mx}_X,\Sigma_X$ for which dense Subset Sum is in time $\tilde{O}(n)$. For notational convenience we assume without loss of generality that $t \ge \rm{mx}_X$ (as larger numbers can be ignored) and $t \le \Sigma_X/2$ (using symmetry). Then our dichotomy reads as follows: -- By reviving and improving an additive-combinatorics-based approach by Galil and Margalit [SICOMP'91], we show that Subset Sum is in near-linear time $\tilde{O}(n)$ if $t \gg \rm{mx}_X \Sigma_X/n^2$. -- We prove a matching conditional lower bound: If Subset Sum is in near-linear time for any setting with $t \ll \rm{mx}_X \Sigma_X/n^2$, then the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis and the Strong k-Sum Hypothesis fail. We also generalize our algorithm from sets to multi-sets, albeit with non-matching upper and lower bounds.},
}