@online{Bringmann_2107.01721,
TITLE = {Fine-Grained Completeness for Optimization in P},
AUTHOR = {Bringmann, Karl and Cassis, Alejandro and Fischer, Nick and K{\"u}nnemann, Marvin},
LANGUAGE = {eng},
URL = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2107.01721},
EPRINT = {2107.01721},
EPRINTTYPE = {arXiv},
YEAR = {2021},
MARGINALMARK = {$\bullet$},
ABSTRACT = {We initiate the study of fine-grained completeness theorems for exact and approximate optimization in the polynomial-time regime. Inspired by the first completeness results for decision problems in P (Gao, Impagliazzo, Kolokolova, Williams, TALG 2019) as well as the classic class MaxSNP and MaxSNP-completeness for NP optimization problems (Papadimitriou, Yannakakis, JCSS 1991), we define polynomial-time analogues MaxSP and MinSP, which contain a number of natural optimization problems in P, including Maximum Inner Product, general forms of nearest neighbor search and optimization variants of the $k$-XOR problem. Specifically, we define MaxSP as the class of problems definable as $\max_{x_1,\dots,x_k} \#\{ (y_1,\dots,y_\ell) : \phi(x_1,\dots,x_k, y_1,\dots,y_\ell) \}$, where $\phi$ is a quantifier-free first-order property over a given relational structure (with MinSP defined analogously). On $m$-sized structures, we can solve each such problem in time $O(m^{k+\ell-1})$. Our results are: -- We determine (a sparse variant of) the Maximum/Minimum Inner Product problem as complete under *deterministic* fine-grained reductions: A strongly subquadratic algorithm for Maximum/Minimum Inner Product would beat the baseline running time of $O(m^{k+\ell-1})$ for *all* problems in MaxSP/MinSP by a polynomial factor. -- This completeness transfers to approximation: Maximum/Minimum Inner Product is also complete in the sense that a strongly subquadratic $c$-approximation would give a $(c+\varepsilon)$-approximation for all MaxSP/MinSP problems in time $O(m^{k+\ell-1-\delta})$, where $\varepsilon > 0$ can be chosen arbitrarily small. Combining our completeness with~(Chen, Williams, SODA 2019), we obtain the perhaps surprising consequence that refuting the OV Hypothesis is *equivalent* to giving a $O(1)$-approximation for all MinSP problems in faster-than-$O(m^{k+\ell-1})$ time.},
}