RuLES - Rule Learning with Embedding Support


Rules over a Knowledge Graph (KG) capture interpretable patterns in data and various methods for rule learning have been proposed. Since KGs are inherently incomplete, rules can be used to deduce missing facts. Statistical measures for learned rules such as confidence reflect rule quality well when the KG is reasonably complete; however, these measures might be misleading otherwise. So it is difficult to learn high-quality rules from the KG alone, and scalability dictates that only a small set of candidate rules could be generated. Therefore, the ranking and pruning of candidate rules are major problems. To address this issue, we propose a rule learning method that utilizes probabilistic representations of missing facts. In particular, we iteratively extend rules induced from a KG by relying on feedback from a precomputed embedding model over the KG and external information sources including text corpora. Experiments on real-world KGs demonstrate the effectiveness of our novel approach both with respect to the quality of the learned rules and fact predictions that they produce.


Code and Data:

Our code and data can be found at:


  • V. T. Ho, D. Stepanova, M. Gad-Elrab, E. Kharlamov, G. Weikum. Rule Learning from Knowledge Graphs Guided by Embedding Models. In ISWC, 2018.
  • V. T. Ho, D. Stepanova, M. Gad-Elrab, E. Kharlamov, G. Weikum. Learning Rules from Incomplete KGs using Embeddings. In ISWC, 2018.